Disturbance DB

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Welcome to the Database on Forest Disturbances in Europe (DFDE)

The Database on Forest Disturbances in Europe (DFDE) aims at providing historic information about disturbances in the forests of Europe. The first version of the DFDE was launched at the EFI website in 2002, containing data until the year 2000. A synthesis of this information is published in Schelhaas et al. (2003). Since then, the database has not been maintained or updated. In the I-Maestro project, the database has been redesigned and published again (2020), and efforts are ongoing to update the contents, with a focus on the period 2000-2020. Access to the database is free.

Disturbance is defined as the occurrence of an event that causes unforeseen loss of living forest biomass or events that decrease the value or potential value of the wood or forest stand. The majority of disturbances is caused by natural agents, but also human induced impacts like air pollution are taken into account. The information in this database is collected by means of a literature review, both from scientific papers as well as from "grey" literature. We are grateful to get information on possible additional datasets or references from the users, with a focus on reports at the national level. Please contact us if you have something to share.

Each reference to a disturbance event is put in a single record, containing at least information on the year of occurrence, the location, disturbance type, a quantification of the impact (volume, area, number, percentage or qualitative) and the data source. Additional information may include the exact date, tree species affected, detailed causes like insect species and other relevant comments. More details on how the data are prepared as well as further DFDE user guidance can be found in Patacca et al. (2021).

How to refer to the data/copyrights

When using any data obtained from the DFDE database, reference should be made both to the original source and the DFDE database. You will find references to the original sources together with the data. The DFDE database can be referred to as: M.J. Schelhaas, M. Patacca, M. Lindner, S. Zudin (2020) Database on Forest Disturbances in Europe (DFDE), European Forest Institute, Joensuu, Finland,

Terms of use

European Forest Institute (“EFI”) provides and maintains the Database on Forest Disturbances in Europe (“DFDE”). DFDE, as well as content on DFDE, may be modified or discontinued without notice. By accessing DFDE, you agree to be bound by these terms and conditions. EFI may change these terms and conditions at any time without notice to you. By continuing to access DFDE following any change, you accept and agree to be bound by all changes.

Use of DFDE

You may not post spam, access DFDE or collect the content of other users or information using automated means, upload viruses or other malicious code, solicit login information or access an account belonging to someone else, use DFDE to do anything unlawful, misleading, malicious, offensive, or discriminatory, do anything that could disable, overburden (e.g. impair the proper working of DFDE), or facilitate or encourage any violations of these terms and conditions.

Intellectual property rights

You may not use DFDE or content on DFDE in any way that infringes the intellectual property rights of EFI or any other party. You therefore have to be aware of copyrights, trademarks, patents and other proprietary rights and laws that may apply DFDE and to specific material therein.

Limitation of liability

The use of DFDE and the use of information received through DFDE is at your own risk. The information from or through DFDE are provided "As-is," "As available," without warranties, express or implied (including but not limited to accuracy, availability, completeness, fitness for purpose, non-infringement or reliability). The information and services may contain bugs, errors, problems or other limitations. EFI has no liability whatsoever for use of any information or service provided through DFDE. In particular, but not as a limitation thereof, EFI is not liable for any direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages (including damages for loss of business, loss of profits, litigation, or the like). You confirm and agree that EFI is not liable for any conduct of any user of DFDE.


You agree to indemnify EFI from and against any and all actions, claims, losses, damages, liabilities and expenses arising from your use of DFDE.

Privileges and immunities

Nothing in these terms of use is to be interpreted as a waiver of any privileges or immunities accorded to EFI by its constituent documents or international law.

Links to other related sources

Below you will find a variety of links are provided to other webpages, which deal with various (natural) disturbances:

These links are provided for your convenience and interest. For EFI, this implies neither responsibility for, nor approval of, information contained in these websites.


We like to thank ForestValue Era Net for funding the project I-Maestro (German grant: Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe, ID 2219NR189) and the Foundation for European Forest Research and Alterra (now Wageningen Environmental Research) for supporting the development of the original database. We are also grateful to all the people that helped in contributing data and/or assisted in translating the many different languages.


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